- Find if insulating your roof or your loft could help you save on your energy bills
- How to insulate a flat roof and a pitched roof and what options are available for both
- Warm loft insulation and cold loft insulation explained - and which one to choose
If your home is un-insulated you could be losing a vast amount of the heat you pay for through your roof. In this guide we'll help you work out which type of insulation to go for, how much it will cost and how much you could save by insulating your roof.
Types of roof insulation
The type of insulation you should go for will depend on the type of roof you have
If you have a pitched roof, there are two options: warm or cold loft insulation.
For flat roofs, there are three options available: warm deck, cold deck or inverted roof.
Cold loft insulation for pitched roofs
The simplest and cheapest roof insulation solution is the classic 'cold loft' option. This is often referred to as loft insulation.
Loft insulation involves insulating between and over the wooden joists immediately above the ceiling of your home's top floor.
It is called 'cold loft' insulation because although it stops the heat escaping from the part of your home you live in, the loft space above the top floor remains un-insulated.
This is the only type of roof insulation for which you can apply to have the costs covered by an insulation grant. It's also fairly easy to do as a DIY project, and you can buy loft insulation from most high street DIY stores.
Warm loft insulation for pitched roofs
If you can't install cold loft insulation because, for example, you're using your loft as a living space, you will need to consider warm loft insulation.
For a warm roof, you will need to install insulation directly under the roof in the plane of the pitch. This will mean your roof space won't become excessively hot in summer or cold in winter, and will reduce heat loss. It's not as easy as laying rolls of insulation, but it can still be done as a DIY job if you'd rather not pay an installer.
One important point to remember with a warm-roof solution is the need for ventilation immediately below the roof tiles. This is to prevent any condensation build up or water getting in through or around the tiles, otherwise the roof structure may begin to rot.
Types of warm loft insulation
The materials used to insulate under the roof include batts of mineral- or glass-wool insulation, held in place by 'battens' of wood attached to and across the rafters. Alternatively, polystyrene slabs, which are sometimes supplied foil-covered, can be fitted. These usually have to be cut to size.
Another option is EPS (expanded polystyrene) 'squeeze' products; these are manufactured with a 'concertina' shape and spring-like effect and can be pushed into place.
There is an exception to the ventilation rule, and that's when applying polyurethane spray foams. These can generally only be applied where the underside of the tiles is bare and there is no roofing felt. Spray foams are mainly professionally installed, but also available as a DIY measure.
Spray foam may also provide additional physical strength where a roof is not in the best condition - as it helps hold the structure together. However, missing or slipped tiles must be fixed before applying the foam insulation.
Flat roof insulation
You'll almost always need to use a professional installer to fit your flat roof insulation, and there are no energy grants available to help with the cost. A good time to insulate a roof is when it's being replaced, although in many cases a roof that is in good condition can be retro-fitted with insulation.
There are three types of insulation for flat roofs and a professional should help you to decide which one is best for you. Find a recommended installer on Which? Local.
- Warm deck or warm roof refers to a situation where the 'deck' of the roof, which is usually made of wood, is below the insulation.
- Cold deck or cold roof is where the insulation is below the roof deck (and the associated joists). Typically a gap will have to be left for ventilation; because this is a 'cold' area, condensation may form which can lead to rot. In both these cases, the weather membrane, typically formed of roofing felt and bitumen, will be the topmost layer, protecting against rain.
- Inverted roof is where the insulation goes above the weather membrane, effectively protecting it from heat and cold which can shorten its life and that of the roof deck - it can even protect against wear and tear if there is access to the roof. With an inverted roof, the top-most layer is generally gravel or a similar material.