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How to choose mobility aids

Choosing a wheelchair

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Choosing a wheelchair

We explain the differences between manual and electric wheelchairs, and how to customise yours to make it as comfortable as possible.

 

Wheelchairs can vastly improve your quality of life. Buying or hiring a wheelchair if you are disabled or have a health condition that affects your walking means you can continue to do the things you enjoy. Here, we explain the different types and give tips on adjusting your wheelchair.

Choosing the right wheelchair can enable you to socialise and go out with friends and family. Wheelchairs can initially be divided into two main categories: manual wheelchairs (propelled by the user's own strength) and powered or electric wheelchairs.

Wheelchairs of either type tend to be smaller than mobility scooters, and are often more manoeuvrable, so may allow better access into shops and other buildings. However, if you want to find out which are the top mobility scooters we've tested, check our mobility scooter Best Buys. We've tested leading brands including Monarch Mobility scooters.

A wheelchair can help you continue to lead an active social life with disabilities or a health condition.

Good for you: If your walking is severely affected.

Think twice if: You’re not sure which type you need – it’s important to get the right one.
 

Joanna Pearl,
Principal Health Researcher

Manual wheelchairs

These are usually most suitable for people who:

  • require a wheelchair all or most of the time (indoors and/or outdoors) for mobility
  • can walk – perhaps with a walking stick or frame – but are unable to cope with longer distances, so use a manual wheelchair when out and about.

You will need sufficient strength and movement in your arms to use a self-propelled wheelchair. If you aren’t able to manage this, you would be more suited to an attendant-propelled wheelchair, designed to be pushed from behind by another person. It’s worth noting that most self-propelled wheelchairs will also have push-handles for times when extra help may be needed.

Self-propelled wheelchairs have larger back wheels, each with an outer ‘pushrim’ that you turn to control and propel the chair. These wheels make for a bulkier chair, which may be less easy to pack into the boot of a car. For this reason, if you are choosing a self-propelled chair, look for one with quick-release wheels, now commonly available.

Attendant-propelled wheelchairs have smaller back wheels, so are often lighter and easier to transport. They are also easier to navigate and control for the person pushing, although they can prove trickier than larger-wheeled chairs to mount obstacles such as kerbs.

Electric or powered wheelchairs

Sometimes called power or electric-assisted wheelchairs, this type would be ideal if you don’t have the strength or stamina to use a self-propelled wheelchair, but do not wish to rely on being pushed – or if you sometimes want to take longer journeys in your wheelchair.

There is a wide variety of models available, best divided into three categories:

  • Indoor/portable: for use at home, or in places with smooth, even flooring such as shopping centres or garden centres. Usually easy to fold for fitting in the boot of a car.
  • Outdoor: will have larger wheels for dealing with uneven terrain, as well as suspension to make the drive more comfortable. Can usually be used indoors, too, but their larger size may mean they don’t fit through some doorways.
  • Indoor/outdoor: designed to offer the best of both worlds. Will not be as light and portable as some models, nor as robust as others, but may provide a good balance of features.

Powered wheelchairs are described as being either Class 2, meaning they can be used outside on pavements, or Class 3, for use on roads and pavements. All are generally a lot heavier than manual wheelchairs because their frame has to be stronger in order to support the battery and motors. Bear this in mind when thinking about the ease of transporting a wheelchair.

Drive controls on electric wheelchairs

The most common type of ‘drive control’ on an electric wheelchair is a joystick mounted on one of the armrests. In theory, these are very simple, although they can sometimes prove difficult to learn. 

You may initially find the controls to be over or under-sensitive, but it should be possible to have them adjusted to suit you. Some companies offer other types, such as handlebar-style drive controls (similar to a scooter’s but smaller), which can be retro-fitted to existing chairs.

Batteries and storage

Batteries are charged by mains electricity, so the wheelchair should generally be stored next to a socket for charging overnight. Some of the larger outdoor-type wheelchairs may need to be stored outside the home – in a garage, for example.

Buying a wheelchair for someone else

If you are buying a wheelchair for a relative, be aware that some people are reticent about the idea of using one – they may feel there is a stigma attached to being 'a wheelchair user' or being seen to need mobility aid. 

If you sense your relative feels this way, discuss it with them and explain how a wheelchair could improve their quality of life. It may also help if you can arrange an opportunity for them to trial a chair before committing to buying one.

It's possible to buy or hire a wheelchair privately, but most wheelchair users in the UK have their equipment supplied via the NHS wheelchair service. For more information, explore our guides on how to get a wheelchair and wheelchair hire.

Ramps

If you have steps up to your house or small changes of level inside, portable ramps are essential. They are available in various materials, widths and lengths, depending on your needs, so do your research before buying. Visit The Ramp People website for a detailed buying guide.

Customisation, adjustments and accessories

Wheelchair manufacturers tend to be more flexible than mobility scooter makers when it comes to customising their products. Some of the things you can often choose or adjust include:

  • Seats: often available in different lengths and widths, or a firmer seat can be custom built. Support or cushioning can be added to give more postural support.
  • Footplates and armrests: most wheelchairs have adjustable footplates and armrests to help you find a comfortable seating position.
  • Backrest: the height is usually fixed.
  • Headrest: can be bought as an optional extra.
  • Storage bags: there are a few different styles of these available for use with wheelchairs, although they are generally not suitable for carrying large amounts of shopping.
  • Protection against the cold or rain: a range of wheelchair-specific items is available, such as waterproofs in various styles and leg warmers that cover the lower half of the body like a half-length sleeping bag.
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