What is an Isa?
By Chiara Cavaglieri
Article 1 of 7
What is an Isa?
Everything you need to know about the entire Isa family, from the original cash Isa to new innovative and lifetime Isas.
What are the different types of Isa?
Isas are tax-free savings or investment accounts offered by banks, insurers, asset managers, building societies and National Savings & Investments (NS&I).
The Isa is now available in more guises than ever. Here, we help you understand your options – and how to make the most of your allowance.
|Which Isa?||Aka||What is it?||Allowance 2017-18||Tax breaks||Bonuses||Providers|
|Cash Isa||Basic Isa||Savings account||£20,000||Tax-free interest||n/a||Banks and building societies|
|Stocks and shares Isa||Investment Isa||Investment account||Tax-free gains, no further tax on dividends, tax-free interest||Fund supermarkets, stockbrokers|
|Innovative Finance Isa||Peer-to-peer Isa||Peer-to-peer lending account||Tax-free interest||Peer-to-peer lending firms|
|Lifetime Cash Isa||Lisa||House deposit and/or retirement savings and investment accounts for first-time buyers and/or under 40s||£4,000a||Tax-free interest||25% top-up on contributions up to £4,000 a year||Banks and building societies|
|Lifetime stocks and shares Isa||Tax-free gains, no further tax on dividends, tax-free interest||Fund supermarkets, stockbrokers|
|Help to Buy Isab||H2B Isa||Savings account for first-time buyers||£3,400||Tax-free interest||25% top-up||Banks and building societies|
|Junior Cash Isa||Jisa||Savings and investment accounts for under 18s||£4,128||Tax-free interest||n/a||Banks and building societies|
|Junior stocks and shares Isa||Tax-free gains, no further tax on dividends, tax-free interest||Fund supermarkets, stockbrokers|
|Inheritance Isas||A term some providers are using to describe accounts that will accept Isa balances inherited from deceased spouses. The surviving spouse gets to subscribe the balance of the deceased's Isa in addition to their own allowance for the tax year.|
|Flexible Isas||A variation on cash and stocks and shares Isas that incorporates new rules allowing you to add money, then withdraw it, and then add it again without using up more of your allowance.|
a Lifetime Isas have a limit of £4,000, which is part of the £20,000 allowance.
b You can't open a help to Buy Isa and a cash Isa in the same year, but some products offer 'split' Isas allowing you to have both up to the allowance maximum.
What is a cash Isa?
A cash Isa is essentially the same as a traditional savings account, except there are limits on the amount of cash you can transfer in and there is no tax to pay on the interest you earn.
In the 2017-18 tax year, you can put £20,000 into a cash Isa.
Best Rate cash Isas will often offer a better return once tax is taken into consideration.
However, all basic- and higher-rate taxpayers are now entitled to the new personal savings allowance, which was introduced on 6 April 2016.
This means basic-rate taxpayers can earn interest of up to £1,000 on non-Isa savings without owing any tax (falling to £500 for higher-rate taxpayers). Interest earned above these thresholds is still taxable at 20% or 40%.
Find out more: Which? savings and Isa comparison tables - compare hundreds of deals
You must consider your individual circumstances before opening a cash Isa to make sure your chosen account is the best one for your needs. There are three principal types of cash Isa, explained below.
Instant access cash Isas
This type of Isa provides savers with the ability to pay in and withdraw money at any time throughout the tax year.
Some let you pay in and withdraw any amount, while others will place annual limits on your withdrawals, or demand minimum deposits from customers.
One thing to remember is that instant-access cash Isas often have variable rates of interest - the price you pay for the luxury of moving cash in and out of your account freely.
If interest rates rise, you could see the value of your savings rise. Conversely, if interest rates drop, this could negatively affect the return you receive.
Which? Money Compare table: Instant access cash Isas - all available deals compared.
Fixed-rate cash Isas
If you’re looking to tie up your savings for a while, you might want to consider a fixed-rate cash Isa. These lock away your money for a set period, usually between one and five years, and in return pay you a higher interest rate. Generally, the longer you tie up your money, the better the interest rate you will receive.
It’s important to note that fixed-rate cash Isas do not allow you to withdraw your money at any time - you forgo the flexibility of easy access to your savings in return for a top rate. So, if you want to access your cash at any point, you may face a penalty, either in the form of a fixed fee or a reduction in your interest rate.
Fixed-rate cash Isas often require a lump sum investment rather than regular savings. If you want to maximise the tax efficiency of your Isa and are able to put a large chunk aside of cash in one go, this is your best option.
Which? Money Compare table: Best fixed-rate cash Isas - compare deals
Regular savings cash Isas
These cash Isas will pay a fixed rate of interest over a set period - usually a year - on the provision that you make a regular monthly savings contribution.
This monthly deposit is limited to your savings allowance within the Isa. In the 2017-18 tax year, you can contribute a maximum of £1,666 per month without exceeding your total limit of £20,000.
Again, it's likely you will not be able to withdraw any of your savings from a regular savings cash Isa, and pay face a penalty if you do so.
Which? Money Compare table: Regular savings cash Isas - compare deals
What is a Help to Buy Isa?
This new type of Isa is aimed specifically at would be first-time buyers.
For every £200 contributed, the government will add an extra £50 towards a deposit on your first home, up to a maximum of £3,000.
You can't contribute to a cash Isa in the same tax year as a Help to Buy Isa. Therefore, if you want to open a Help to Buy Isa in the current tax year, make sure you don't add any money to a cash Isa as well.
Find out more: Help to Buy Isas - our two-minute video explains all you need to know
What is a lifetime Isa?
This is another type of Isa that allows you to save, tax-free, for your first home or for retirement. But it is only available for under 40s.
For every £4 you contribute, the government will add a £1 bonus, to a maximum of £4,000. This means you could get an annual bonus of £1,000.
You can use the lifetime Isa to save towards buying your first home, or you can leave it to grow until you are 60, when you can take the money out tax-free for retirement.
Find out more: Lifetime Isas - all you need to know about the new Isa
What is a stocks and shares Isa?
In a stocks and shares Isa, all capital gains and income are protected from tax.
You can learn more about how these accounts work in our guide titled stocks and shares Isas explained.
What is an 'innovative finance' Isa'?
This new type of Isa lets you invest in peer-to-peer (P2P) lending - where you lend cash to individuals or small businesses - without paying tax.
The platform you choose will be able to set up your account so that the interest paid by borrowers is kept within a tax-free Isa wrapper.
Find out more: peer-to-peer lending explained - get to grips with the risks.
Mini and Maxi cash Isas, TOISAs and PEPs
Isas were originally available as mini Isas (cash only, or stocks and shares only) and maxi Isas (cash, and stocks and shares).
TOISA stands for TESSA-only Isa. These accounts were originally created for people who had invested in TESSAs (Tax-Exempt Special Savings Accounts) - an older type of tax-free savings vehicle which was phased out of existence when Isas were introduced.
PEP stands for Personal Equity Plan. These were tax-efficient savings products that allowed people to invest in stocks and shares, but new investment in PEPs was stopped in 1999 to coincide with the introduction of Isas.
In April 2008, all of these products were reclassified as either cash or stocks and shares Isas.
- Last updated: April 2017
- Updated by: Jo Langenhan