The National Rail Conditions of Carriage are the underlying rules for train travel in Britain. These conditions set out the amount of compensation you're entitled to. 

The minimum compensation for a delay is 50% of your single ticket (25% of a return, unless you were delayed on both legs) if you're more than one hour late.

These conditions are significantly stingier than any of the train companies' own rules on compensation for delay. 

The companies' compensation levels are set out in their franchise agreements with the government, and the levels are different for every company. 

As a general rule, around half of the companies will refund 50% of your ticket for a delay of 30 minutes or more.

In summary

  • Delay repay is a national scheme most train companies use to compensate you for delays and cancellations.
  • National Rail Conditions of Carriage state that compensation can be paid in cash or rail vouchers.
  • Read our guide on how to claim refunds for train delays and cancellations to make a delay repay claim.

The National Rail Conditions of Carriage state that compensation must be provided as cash or National Rail vouchers. 

Having a bad experience with train travel is likely to make you less keen on going back for more. 

Importantly, you must explicitly request a cash refund - or your train company may give you rail vouchers instead.

Refunds for season ticket holders tend to be calculated using the proportional daily cost of the price of your annual ticket. 

What you get depends on the route and price of our ticket, but the refund often works out at less than someone travelling with a recently purchased ticket.

Compensation doesn't apply if delays, cancellations or poor service happened for reasons outside a train company's control, for example:

  • Acts or threats of vandalism or terrorism
  • Suicides or accidents involving trespassers
  • Gas leaks or fires in lineside buildings not caused by a train company
  • Line closures at the request of the police or emergency services
  • Exceptionally severe weather conditions
  • Industrial action
  • Riots or civil commotion
  • Fire, mechanical or electrical failure or a defect (except where caused by a train company or its trains’ defects)

In the case of bad weather, Network Rail and the train companies have to agree that the weather is exceptionally severe. 

If other modes of transport are badly affected by the weather, it's likely the weather will be deemed ‘exceptionally severe.’ 

If it is, the theory is that train companies don't have to compensate you.

But, the conditions also say that companies ‘will consider additional claims in exceptional circumstances'. So, it could well be worth claiming for compensation anyway.

The weather rules bring about the paradox that you could be much better off not getting on the heavily delayed train at, for example, snowy times – as you would then be entitled to a refund rather than no compensation. 

This is because if the train you were going to take is cancelled or delayed – or your reservation was not going to be honoured – and you decide not to travel, you're entitled to a refund.

If circumstances within the control of a train company leave you stranded, any train company that can help should. 

They should get you to your destination or give you overnight accommodation.

Transport for London (TFL) offers refunds if a passenger's journey is delayed for more than 15 minutes. 

For tube passengers, this amounts to the fare for the single journey you were making, whether you have a season ticket or have purchased a single fare. 

London Overground users have to be delayed by more than 30 minutes. 

You must claim within 14 days to be eligible for a refund. 

The European Commission has launched an app for passengers travelling in the EU. 

The application covers your rights for all modes of transport, and is available on the following platforms - Apple iPhone and iPad, Google Android, RIM Blackberry and Microsoft Windows Phone 7. 

Download the app here.