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New travel rules mean international arrivals to the UK will need to take a pre-departure test from 4am on Tuesday 7 December.
Tests are mandatory for everyone 12 and over, including those who are vaccinated, and must taken within two days of departure to the UK. This test is in addition to the day 2 tests also required of all travellers when they return to the UK.
- What countries are on the green list?
- What countries are on the red list?
- Green list travel rules for vaccinated people
- Green list travel rules for unvaccinated people
- Red list travel rules for all travellers
- What happens if I’m abroad and the country I’m visiting turns red?
- Should I book a holiday?
- Proving you’re vaccinated
The UK has also added another country – Nigeria- to its red list (affective 4am on 6 December). It joins the 10 locations in southern Africa which were recently added to the no-go travel list. You can find the full red list, along with more information about travel to and from these countries below.
But it isn’t just the UK’s red list you need to watch out for. Other destinations have their own rules on whether or not they’ll permit entry to visitors from the UK. For example, the USA only allows UK travellers who are double vaccinated, while Japan is closed to everyone expect residents.
Some European countries have also implemented greater restrictions for those entering. For trips to Spain (including the Canary Islands) anyone over the age of 12 must be fully vaccinated. For trips to Portugal and France, even fully vaccinated travellers will need to show evidence of a negative PCR test.
What are the current travel rules?
It depends on whether you are travelling from a green list ‘rest of world’ country or a red list country and whether you are vaccinated. These rules indicate whether you need to take tests before or after returning to the UK, and how long you need to quarantine for. See below for full rules dependent on your vaccination status.
Read our where can I go on holiday story for the full list and advice on booking.
Which countries are on the green list?
All countries, except for South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, Eswatini, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Angola, Malawi, Mozambique and Zambia are on the green list. Nigeria is currently on the green list, but will move to the red list from 4am on 6 December.
Green list: fully vaccinated rules
All arrivals into the UK, regardless of vaccination status, must take a pre-departure test before travelling to the UK and take a day 2 PCR test, self-isolating until getting a negative result.
UK travellers can now use the NHS app to prove their vaccination status in many countries. You can also access this online if you don’t have a smartphone, or request proof in letter form if you don’t have access to a computer or printer. Find out more about the NHS app, how to download and use it
Pre-departure tests: what are the new rules?
From 4am on 7 December everyone over the age of 12 must take a pre-departure test before travelling to the UK. This test needs to be taken no longer than 48 hours before you depart for the UK and can be a lateral flow or PCR. Travellers from the Common Travel Area, including Ireland don’t need to take this test.
You can either buy a test in the destination you are in, which will often be cheaper than in the UK, or purchase a test kit before your trip to take with you. If you do buy a test in the destination make sure the results are displayed in English, French or Spanish.
On top of day two tests, which are also required, it’s likely to add a significant cost to a holiday. Some people will also worry about potentially testing positive abroad. If you no longer want to travel, you may be able to rebook if your holiday company has a flexible booking policy.
Green list: Unvaccinated travel rules
Unvaccinated travellers coming from a green country to anywhere in the UK must take a pre-departure test, followed by day 2, and 8 test, and quarantine at home. Test to release on day 5 remains an option to reduce the self-isolation period. Read our review of private test providers, which looks at who has the best refund policies, customer reviews and cheapest prices.
Which countries are on the red list?
- Nigeria – from 4am Monday 6 December
- South Africa
Red list: travel rules
For both vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals returning from a red list country, there will be a requirement to take a pre-departure test and undergo a hotel quarantine for 10 days, with day 2 or 8 tests, and no tests to release.
Which vaccines are accepted for entry into England?
The government is making it easier for foreign nationals and UK citizens vaccinated abroad to enter England without the need for quarantine. It recently announced it will recognise vaccines listed under the WHO Emergency Use List. England recognises those vaccinated in 135 approved countries and territories with any of the following vaccines: Pfizer BioNTech, Oxford AstraZeneca (including Covishield), Moderna, Janssen, as well as Sinovac, Sinopharm Beijing and Covaxin.
Can I take a holiday to countries on the red list? What tests are needed?
You should not travel to red list countries for holidays. If you have to travel there, you’ll need to pay for a 10-day stay at a government-managed quarantine hotel on your return – that currently costs £2,285 for a single adult and £1,430 for a second adult. You’ll also have to take a pre-departure test and PCR tests on day 2 and 8 regardless of your vaccination status.
I’ve got a trip booked to southern Africa – what should I do?
The Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO) is now advising against all travel to South Africa. All decent holiday companies will therefore cancel any package holidays and allow you to rebook or get a refund. Read our guide to package holiday companies with flexible booking policies to find out more.
When’s the next travel update taking place and how frequently will it change?
Updates tend to take place every three weeks and the next scheduled update should be around 9 December. However, the government has demonstrated that if a Covid variant of concern appears, it will not hesitate to add countries straight to the red list with little warning.
The government warns it won’t ‘hesitate to act immediately should data show countries’ risk ratings have changed’, meaning travellers could face disruption.
How does the government decide which countries are on the red or green lists?
Destinations have been assigned their status based on a range of Covid-19 health metrics, including vaccination numbers, infection rates and prevalence of variants. But the truth is no one knows exactly how the government makes these decisions, meaning it is impossible to guess how rules may change. The varying statuses indicate the risk in each destination and which tests and quarantine periods are required.
Read our article detailing airlines with the best flexible flight policies.
What happens if I’m abroad and the country I’m visiting turns red?
If it is announced while you are away that your holiday destination’s status is changing to red, this is unlikely to take effect without some notice.
Red list status means you will have to pay to quarantine in a hotel on your return home, if you don’t land back in the UK before the deadline set. This costs £2,285 for a single adult and £1,430 for a second adult. To avoid hotel quarantine, a package holiday company may try to bring you home early, before the country’s status changes to red.
This isn’t guaranteed though, so it’s best you ask your travel company before booking what happens in this scenario. In the instance your holiday provider won’t fly you home early, or you booked your flights and hotel separately, you will need to pay for new flights home – unless your airline permits free changes (though you’ll still need to pay the difference). The airfares are likely to be high due to demand.
Alternatively, if you don’t choose to come home early or a flight ban is put in place, you will have to shell out for a quarantine hotel for all family members. The cost is £2,285 for a single adult and £1,430 for a second adult for hotel quarantine – though some countries will pay for this on your behalf.
Most travel insurers won’t pay for costs incurred due to returning home early as a result of a country turning red.
What else do I need to know?
Entry requirements: Before you book a trip do find out if the country is allowing UK residents to enter, several green rated countries, such as New Zealand don’t. Other countries, such as Malta, require you to show an NHS Covid Pass as proof of being fully vaccinated.
Covid-19 vaccine certification: You may have chosen to download and print a PDF of your proof of inoculation as a backup in case the app malfunctions. However, be aware that this needs to be dated 1 November or after. Those printed earlier may be refused in a dozen or so EU countries, including Belgium, Croatia and Czechia. A safer bet is to request a letter from the NHS as a backup in case the app fails – the letter does not have a validity date.
If you are planning to travel to a destination where proof of vaccination is accepted, you also need to check rules on what evidence is required. The government website is a good place to check to see if they’ll accept the NHS app or letter as proof.
FCDO advice: It’s essential that you check FCDO advice before travel. This advises on whether travel to a country is safe based on Covid metrics but also includes the risk of a wider range of factors in its analysis – such as civil unrest and terrorism. If you travel to a country against government advice, this could invalidate your insurance.
Should I book a holiday?
If you decide to book a holiday, you’ll need to check which tests will be needed on your chosen travel dates and factor in the cost.
Tests are required even for travel to and from green list countries, and will continue to play a part in travel from the next rule update – albeit a slightly more minimal part for vaccinated individuals.
You still need to take note of the entry requirements to enter a country and check FCDO advice. Just because it’s not on the red list, doesn’t mean the FCDO advises you should travel there. Equally, just because the UK says it’s safe to travel, doesn’t mean that the country will let you in.
You also need to protect yourself in case the country you’ve booked is later moved onto the government’s no-go red list – it could do so at short notice. Delayed Covid-19 test results could also prevent travellers from boarding their flights, and unless you take out travel insurance, you may lose the cost of your holiday. Once abroad you must also be prepared that if you test positive for Covid you will have to self-isolate at your destination.
Proving you’re vaccinated
In England, the NHS app can be used as proof of vaccination status. However, check the country will accept this as valid proof before travelling. Some countries may still require proof of a negative test, check before booking.
English residents can also request proof online or in letter form by calling 119. Read everything you need to know about using the NHS app for travel from downloading it, to creating a QR code to proving your vaccination status.
Travellers will be responsible for making sure they have evidence of vaccination before travel. If for any reason you don’t, you’ll be liable for any additional test costs that are required.
Residents in Wales can access their Digital Covid Passes for international travel online, and download or print the Pass as a PDF document. This isn’t possible for Wales residents on the NHS app. Find out how you can access the Covid pass on the Welsh Government website.
You can also request a vaccination certificate, through your local health board in writing or by phone. If you cannot access this, you can call 0300 303 5667 to request a vaccination certificate. However, it can take up to 10 working days for this to arrive.
You can also request a vaccination certificate, through your local health board in writing or by phone. If your travel is urgent and essential, and you can’t get a test in time, or quarantine to meet a country’s entry requirements, you can call 0300 303 5667 to request a vaccination certificate. However, it can take up to 10 working days for this to arrive.
Residents of Scotland can use the free NHS Scotland Covid Status App to prove they have been inoculated. It is also possible to request a printed vaccine certificate or download a PDF from the NHS inform website. Alternatively, call 0808 196 8565 if you’re due to travel in the next three weeks.
Residents of Northern Ireland can’t use the NHS app. Instead you can apply for a Covid vaccination certificate online or through the COVIDCertNI app. If you cannot apply online for any reason, request a paper version by calling 0300 200 7814.
How to use the NHS app for travel – how it works and when you need a physical certificate instead