We use cookies to allow us and selected partners to improve your experience and our advertising. By continuing to browse you consent to our use of cookies. You can understand more and change your cookies preferences here.

Wood burning stoves: what you need to know

Stoves and pollution

By Liz Ransome-Croker

Article 7 of 7

Put us to the test

Our Test Labs compare features and prices on a range of products. Try Which? to unlock our reviews. You'll instantly be able to compare our test scores, so you can make sure you don't get stuck with a Don't Buy.

Stoves and pollution

Considering a stove but concerned about pollution? Our guide looks at the pollution a stove can create and how to minimise it, so you can make an informed decision.

There has been a lot of coverage in the media about potentially harmful pollutants from stoves. Pollutants are generated from a range of things we encounter in our daily livesfrom cars on busy streets, to heating and cooking appliances in our own homes. 

So should you still use a stove? Read on to find out about the kind of pollution a stove can produce, and how you can minimise it. You can click on the links below to go straight to the section you want.

If you're worried about the effects of stoves on pollution, you might want to consider a gas or electric stove as an alternative. Visit our full guide to understand the benefits.

Is a wood burning stove bad for the environment? 

According to the Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs (Defra), while air quality has improved significantly in the UK over the past few decades, the burning of solid fuels (such as house coal and wood) in our homes is the largest contributor of harmful particulate-matter (PM) emissions.

This makes up 38% of our national PM emissions while, in comparison, industrial combustion is 16% and road transport 12%. 

'Dirtier' fuels, such as wet logs and house coal, have much more of an impact than others, including kiln-dried logs and smokeless fuel. As does burning on an open fire.

Earlier this year, Defra worked with organisations and industry experts to gather evidence on the use of different fuels and their health implications. The aim was to enable the government to assess how stoves can be used so they have less impact on the environment, and the effect this would have on consumers and businesses. 

All this information has now fed into the government's finalised Clear Air Strategy and National Air Pollution Control Programme, published in January 2019. It lays out its pledge to cut emissions from particulate matter by 30% by 2020 and 46% by 2030.

As well as multi-fuel and wood burning stoves, the strategy also aims to tackle pollutants from transport and agriculture. Read on below to find out exactly what the government plans to do, and how it will affect stove owners or those hoping to buy one.

Is there going to be a wood burning stove ban? 

The government is not going to ban stoves, but instead educate consumers and introduce measures that will make sure people burn cleaner fuels and that stoves emit fewer pollutants. 

1Limit the sale of polluting fuels

As mentioned above, wet logs and house coal produce far more particulate matter than dry logs and low-sulphur solid fuel, such as anthracite coal.

The government plans to bring into force legislation that will mean only the more efficient fuels will be on sale. This will include reducing the amount of wet wood on sale, or it only being bought to be seasoned at home – which means being left to dry (a cheaper way to buy fuel for your stove).

It also plans to restrict the use of bituminous house coal and high-sulphur smokeless fuels. There is already a limit in Smoke Control Areas on burning fuel containing more than 2% of sulphur. It plans to extend this nationwide and ensure that there is more clarity around the sulphur content of fuel when sold.

In addition, it will push for innovations with developing and producing less-polluting fuels.

It's also working with industry, including the Stove Industry Alliance (an organisation representing stove manufacturers), Hetas (biomass and solid fuel organisation) and chimney sweep organisations to educate consumers at the point of sale or when having their chimney swept or maintained.

2Only the 'cleanest' stoves on sale 

Currently, stoves must be more than 65% efficient. However, by 2022, the EU has stipulated that all stoves must meet higher efficiency levels. The government will work with industry to ensure that this target is met and that appliances are tested in the right way.

You can find out more below about ways to minimise the effects of stove pollution, including using the right fuels and having an efficient stove. You might also want to look at getting a gas or electric stove instead.

3Update legislation around Smoke Control Areas 

According to councils, rules around Smoke Control Areas, such as only burning certain types of fuel, are adhered to with varying degrees – scroll down below to find out more about Smoke Control Areas. 

The government is working with local authorities and retailers to raise awareness of these rules when a stove is purchased. 

It will also make changes to the Environment Bill to ensure smoke control legislation is easier for local authorities to enforce, and look to give authorities more power around reducing pollution further in their area.

Should I still get a stove? 

Cooking, cleaning and heating appliances, including stoves, all produce pollutants. 'Dirtier' fuels and inefficient and non-Defra exempt stoves will be much worse, so you should steer clear of these.

Many of the pollutants are only a problem if you're exposed to high levels over a long period. These problems are likely to be more noticeable in individuals with pre-existing respiratory conditions. But they will also contribute to overall levels of pollution nationally.

Our section on types of pollution and the results from our air pollution investigation tells you more about the different types, where they come from, the effects they can have and how you can minimise potential problems. 

Not having a stove will, of course, mean fewer pollutants. But stoves do have some good points, especially when it comes to carbon emissions.

Biomass materials, such as wood, are considered a carbon-neutral source of energy. Despite producing carbon dioxide when burnt, they only release roughly the same amount they absorb while growing. 

Locally-produced biomass materials are even better in terms of carbon, as less carbon is produced when transporting them across shorter distances. This can also help you to save money.

There are also things you can do to make sure your stove isn't producing more pollutants than it should – keep reading for six ways to minimise the effects of stove pollution.

If you're really concerned about pollution, or have severe health conditions (especially respiratory related), a stove might not be the best option for you.

If you're still want to have the same the look and feel of a stove, a gas or electric version could be a good option - head to our guide for details.

You might also want to also consider getting an air purifier to combat pollution. Our tests reveal the ones that can truly be trusted to quickly and effectively clean the air in your homefind out which are the best air purifiers.

Six ways to minimise the effects of stove pollution 

From burning the right fuel to making sure you maintain your appliance, you can minimise pollutants from stoves.

4Buy an efficient stove

Although new rules for minimum efficiently levels (called Ecodesign) won't come into force until 2022, The Stove Industry Alliance (SIA) is working with manufacturers to create stoves that meet the emissions part of the criterion now.

Called Ecodesign stoves, these models should produce fewer harmful gases, such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. The SIA says they reduce potentially harmful particle emissions by more than 80%, compared with stoves made 10 years ago. Stoves that fulfil these requirements will be labelled ‘Ecodesign Ready’.

You can visit the Hetas website - a government-backed organisation that approves stoves, fuel and heating engineers - to find out more about the Ecodesign legislation that will become a legal requirement for all stoves in 2022. 

Go to how to buy a multi-fuel stove or log burner for more information on what you need to consider when buying a stove - including efficiency, wattage and building regulations.

5Get a Defra-exempt stove to burn wood

If you live in a smoke-controlled area, you will only be allowed to burn smokeless fuel – such as anthracite coal. If you want to burn wood, you'll have to buy a Defra-exempt stove (also called Defra-approved).

Even if you don't live in one of these designated areas, a Defra-exempt stove could be a good option to help cut emissions. This is because these stoves fit government criteria for emission levels and the amount of smoke they produce. 

Wood creates more smoke if it doesn't have a good enough supply of oxygen. Defra-exempt stoves make it harder for wood to smoulder, and stop it from ever being completely starved of oxygen. So, as well as reducing emissions, it will minimise sooty build-up in your chimney. This will keep your flue clearer for gasses to escape.

Our wood-burning stove review pages detail whether companies sell Ecodesign Ready and Defra-exempt stoves. You can also check this on the Defra website and Hetas website.

6Don't use wet logs on your stove

To help reduce potentially harmful emissions from your stove, only burn wood with 20% or less moisture content. It will also minimise sooty deposits building up in your chimney, which can be a fire hazard. 

Dry wood is also more efficient, as energy won’t be wasted having to burn off the water first, so the heat output will be higher. 

Kiln-dried logs should have 20% or less moisture - 35% of the Which? members we surveyed* use these most regularly – or you can dry out wetter logs yourself. This is called seasoning and is what most people use (81%). Just 5% use 'wet logs'.

Keep in mind that seasoning could take two or more years, depending on how wet the wood is to begin with and the conditions you store it in. You can buy a moisture metre to check the levels.

If you’re buying wood, as opposed to drying it yourself, look out for the Ready to Burn logo. This new government-backed scheme means that only wood from reputable manufacturers can display the logo on logs that do contain less than 20% moisture.

Also make sure you never burn treated wood, such as from an old piece of furniture, as it could let off toxic chemicals.

Our advice on using a log burner or multi-fuel stove tells you more about the different types of fuel, using them efficiently, and the Ready to Burn logo.

7Burn smokeless coal instead of house coal

Burning smokeless coal is more environmentally friendly than using house coal, as it produces fewer emissions. House coal also creates more ash, which means you'll need to clean out your stove more frequently.

22% of stove owners that answered our survey use this regularly, and only 4% use house coal. 

Smokeless coal is an umbrella term for a few different types of coal that produce less smoke as they burn. It includes anthracite coal - this occurs naturally, but can also be manufactured.

Man-made smokeless coals can contain a combination of elements, including anthracite and other renewable materials, making many of them more eco-friendly than house coal.

Look for smokeless fuel with 2% or less sulphur, as high levels of sulphur can impact your health and damage stoves and chimneys. 

For smoke-controlled areas, the Clean Air Act 1993 stipulates that smokeless solid fuels mustn't contain more than 2% sulphur. The government will extend this to apply the rule nationally.

8Learn to keep your stove burning well

Wood that doesn't have a good supply of air is likely to smoke more, therefore producing higher levels of potentially harmful emissions.

Whether you're burning wood or coal, leave the door ajar and open air vents while you're getting the fire going. Once established, use the air vents to keep the fire burning.

Ensure the flue stays at the right temperature throughout use by making sure the fire is constant. Building burning materials into a teepee shape at the beginning will help. 

This will help avoid carbon monoxide – an odourless and potentially deadly gas – coming down the chimney. 

It's worth buying a stove thermometer to monitor the temperature. Most stoves should stay between 200 and 250°C. This can vary for each stove, so check with your manufacturer.

Go to using a log burner or multi-fuel stove to watch our videos on the best way to light a wood and coal fire.

9Clean and maintain your stove regularly

Having your chimney swept regularly is vital for ensuring it doesn't get overloaded with sooty deposits. Any obstructions could become a fire hazard, and will prevent smoke from escaping properly.

You should get it swept quarterly while it's in use if you burn wood or coal. If you burn smokeless coal, you should get it swept yearly. 

Worryingly, 4% of people we spoke to never get their stove swept. However, a high proportion (59%) get it swept annually and 31% every few years.

You can find a chimney sweep on sites like the National Association of Chimney Sweeps to find one in your area or head to Which? Trusted Traders.

Make sure you also examine your stove for any cracks, distortions or other problems, and get them checked by a stove installer or chimney sweep.

Any faults could mean harmful pollutants are making their way into your home.

Types of pollution in your home 

There are three main types of pollution in our homes: particulate matter, gasses and volatile organic compounds.

1. Particulate matter

Combustion is created by wood and coal fires, but also by regular activities - such as burning candles, using electric toasters and gas cooking. Combustion produces tiny particulate matter. This can also come from dusting and vacuuming. 

Particulate matter can inflame your airways and increase the risk of lung and heart disease if inhaled at persistently high levels over time.

2. Gases

Gases – including carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) – are emitted by appliances that burn fuel, such as open fires, gas cookers and gas boilers.

  • CO2 is produced by human respiration and burners operating normally. High levels of CO2 over time, which can come from poor ventilation, can result in drowsiness, impaired thinking, dizziness and headaches. Individuals with lung disease and impaired lung function could be particularly affected. 
  • NO2 is produced by combustion. In homes with gas stoves, kerosene heaters or unvented gas-space heaters, indoor levels often exceed outdoor levels, possibly increasing the effects of exposure to allergens, such as house dust mites, and irritating the eyes, nose, throat and respiratory tract.
  • CO is produced when carbon-containing fuel burns without adequate oxygen. For example, by poorly-maintained gas heaters and boilers, portable gas or paraffin heaters with no flue and badly installed stoves.

CO is an odourless, but potentially deadly, gas. Every home should have at least one working carbon monoxide detector, correctly positioned. But don't think every carbon monoxide detector is up to the job of protecting you and your family. 

Our tests have uncovered carbon monoxide alarms that can't be relied upon to detect the gas and sound the alarm. Discover our Don't Buy carbon monoxide detectors.

3. Volatile organic compounds

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are chemicals found in a wide variety of materials. They are produced when cooking and using heating appliances, such as wood burners and non-electric space heaters. VOCs evaporate into the air at room temperature, forming vapours that we breathe. 

Different classes of VOCs have different risk levels. For example, benzene (from petrol and cigarette smoke and, potentially, from paints and solvents) is high risk. Whereas terpenes, including limonene and pinene (familiar lemon and pine smells used in scented toiletries and bathroom cleaners), are considered lower risk. 

VOCs can react with ozone from outdoor air, particularly in hot weather, to form the gas formaldehyde and other irritants. Formaldehyde is a lung irritant that can cause allergic reactions, and, at very high levels, is carcinogenic. Formaldehyde can also be released from new flat-pack furniture, lino and carpet, fabrics, bedding, glues and insulation. 

Exposure to very high levels of VOCs can cause symptoms such as eye, nose and throat irritation, headaches and nausea and, in the long term, even damage the liver, kidneys and central nervous system. 

Our investigation into air pollution in the home 

In December 2016, we took snapshot measurements of air-quality and ventilation rates in three semi-detached houses:

  • ‘draughty’ Victorian house 
  • 1950s house with many insulating improvements
  • new-build end-of-terrace. 

Our measurements were taken with the windows closed before, and almost immediately after, concentrated bursts of common household activities. This included vacuuming, cleaning, cooking and using personal care and scented products. 

We discovered surprisingly high levels of pollutants with potential cumulative long-term health effects in all of our test houses.

While the activities we performed were relatively short-term – making a fry-up, cleaning the bath and vacuuming – it’s the prolonged exposure to the generated pollutants that could cause health problems. 

It's important to stress that some people are more susceptible to the effects of indoor pollutants – for example, if you suffer from asthma, are sensitive to allergens indoors or have heart and lung disease. 

We're not suggesting you should worry about every candle you light, or open all the windows, even in winter. Our discoveries are more about potential cumulative effects over the longer term. But there are certain things you can do to limit the risks:

  • choose products that will minimise indoor pollution;
  • maximise ventilation by opening windows and trickle vents;
  • use bathroom and kitchen extractor fans.

You can read our full report on air pollution in the home to find out more about the potential risks and how to minimise any issues. 

(*January 2019 survey of 1,434 Which? members who have bought a stove in the last 10 years.)