Stoves and pollution
There has been a lot of coverage in the media about potentially harmful pollutants from stoves. Pollutants are generated from a range of things we encounter in our daily lives – from cars on busy streets, to heating and cooking appliances in our homes.
So should you still use a stove? We explore the kind of pollution a stove can produce and how you can minimise it.
Is a wood-burning stove bad for the environment?
According to the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), while UK air quality has improved significantly over the past few decades, the burning of solid fuels (such as coal and wood) in our homes is the largest contributor of harmful particulate-matter (PM) emissions.
Its Clean Air Strategy (published January 2019) states it makes up 38% of our national PM emissions while, in comparison, industrial combustion is 16% and road transport 12%.
It's worth noting that this figure includes the use of open fires and 'dirtier' fuels, such as wet logs and house coal, both of which emit higher levels of PM.
In addition, separate research released in January 2020 indicates that the 38% might also include other types of unregulated burning as well, such as pizza ovens, fire pits and bonfires.
Commissioned by Heating Equipment Testing and Approvals Scheme (Hetas), which tests and approves fuel, stoves and installers, and the stove manufacturers' organisation, the Stove Industry Alliance, the report also indicates that the predictions around the amount of fuel burnt is overestimated and that the methods of measuring PM levels used were not the most accurate.
Is there going to be a wood-burning stove ban?
The government is not going to ban stoves, but instead wants to educate consumers and introduce measures that will make sure people burn cleaner fuels and that stoves emit fewer pollutants.
Limit the sale of polluting fuels
Burning wet logs and house coal produces far more particulate matter than burning dry logs and low-sulphur solid fuel, such as anthracite coal.
New laws will mean that only the more efficient fuels will be on sale. They include banning the sale of small amounts of wet wood with higher than 20% moisture content from 1 May 2021.
You will still be able to buy larger batches to be seasoned at home (which means being left to dry, a cheaper way to buy fuel for your stove). But sellers must give advice with it on how to store and season the wood so it is ready to burn.
The sale of pre-packaged bituminous house coal, which produces high levels of sulphur as well as particulates, will also be banned. You will still be able to buy it loose until February 2023. There is already a limit in smoke control areas on burning fuel containing more than 2% of sulphur.
The government will also push for innovations in developing and producing less-polluting fuels. It is working with industry, including Hetas, the Stove Industry Alliance and chimney sweep organisations, to educate consumers when they buy fuel or have their chimney swept or maintained.
Only the 'cleanest' stoves on sale
By 2022, the EU has stipulated that all stoves must meet higher efficiency levels and new maximum emission limits (visit our page on to find out more). The government will work with industry to ensure this target is met and that appliances are tested in the right way.
Update legislation around smoke control areas
According to councils, rules around smoke control areas, such as only burning certain types of fuel, are adhered to with varying degrees – scroll down below to find out more about smoke control areas.
The government is working with local authorities and retailers to raise awareness of these rules when a stove is bought.
It will also make changes to the Environment Bill to ensure smoke-control legislation is easier for local authorities to enforce and look to give authorities more power around reducing pollution further in their area.
Should I still get a stove?
Cooking, cleaning and heating appliances, including stoves, all produce pollutants. 'Dirtier' fuels and inefficient and non-Defra-exempt stoves will be much worse, so you should steer clear of these.
Many of the pollutants are only a problem if you're exposed to high levels over a long period. These problems are likely to be more noticeable in individuals with pre-existing respiratory conditions. But they will also contribute to overall levels of pollution nationally.
Keep reading to find out more about the types of pollution, the results of our air pollution investigation, where pollution come from, the effects they can have and how you can minimise potential problems.
Not having a stove will, of course, mean fewer pollutants. But stoves do have some good points, especially when it comes to carbon emissions.
Biomass materials, such as wood, are considered a low-carbon source of energy as they absorb carbon while growing.
Locally produced biomass materials are even better in terms of carbon, as less is produced when transporting them across shorter distances. This can also help you to save money.
There are also things you can do to make sure your stove isn't producing more pollutants than it should – keep reading for six ways to minimise the effects of stove pollution.
If you're really concerned about pollution, or have severe health conditions (especially respiratory related), a stove might not be the best option for you. A study published by researchers at the University of Sheffield and the University of Nottingham in 2020 looked at how much particulate matter was emitted indoors by Defra-certified stoves. It warned that people in homes with a stove are at risk of exposure to high intensities of two types of particulate matter.
You might also want to also consider getting an air purifier to help improve the air quality in your home. Our tests reveal the ones that can truly be trusted to quickly and effectively clean the air in your home – find out which are the ."
Six ways to minimise the effects of stove pollution
From burning the right fuel to making sure you maintain your appliance, you can minimise pollutants from stoves.
1. Buy an efficient stove
New rules for minimum efficiency and maximum emission levels for stoves will come into force in January 2022. These are called the Ecodesign Regulations and mean that only stoves that have been tested and meet the new limits will be legal to sell and install in the UK.
You don't have to wait until next year to be able to buy a newer, more efficient stove.
The Stove Industry Alliance (SIA) works with manufacturers to create stoves that meet the emissions part of the criteria now (not the entire criteria). It calls these 'Ecodesign Ready' stoves and says they reduce potentially harmful particle emissions significantly compared with open fires and older stoves.
Hetas also lists stoves which can use its 'Hetas Ecodesign Compliant' logo - these meet the new limits for efficiency and emissions. Visit the to find out more about the Ecodesign legislation that will apply to all stoves in 2022.
2. Get a Defra-exempt stove to burn wood
If you live in a smoke-controlled area, you are only allowed to burn smokeless fuel – such as anthracite coal. If you want to burn wood, you'll have to buy a Defra-exempt stove (also called Defra-approved).
Even if you don't live in one of these designated areas, a Defra-exempt stove could be a good option to help cut emissions. This is because these stoves fit government criteria for emission levels and the amount of smoke they produce.
Wood creates more smoke if it doesn't have a good-enough supply of oxygen. Defra-exempt stoves make it harder for wood to smoulder and stop it from ever being completely starved of oxygen. So, as well as reducing emissions, it will minimise soot build-up in your chimney. This will keep your flue clearer for gases to escape.
3. Don't use wet logs on your stove
To help reduce potentially harmful emissions from your stove, only burn wood with 20% or less moisture content. From May 2021 most suppliers will be banned from selling wood in small quantities that contains more moisture than this (very small suppliers have until May 2022 to comply). Burning dry wood also minimises sooty deposits building up in your chimney, which can be a fire hazard.
Dry wood is also more efficient, as energy won’t be wasted having to burn off the water first, so the heat output will be higher.
Kiln-dried logs should have 20% or less moisture – 35% of the Which? members we surveyed* use these most regularly – or you can dry out wetter logs yourself. This is called seasoning and is what most people use (81%). From May 2021 sellers must give you advice on how to ensure wood is properly seasoned.
Keep in mind that seasoning could take two or more years, depending on how wet the wood is to begin with and the conditions you store it in. You can buy a moisture meter to check the levels.
If you’re buying wood, as opposed to drying it yourself, look for the Ready to Burn logo. This shows the wood contains less than 20% moisture, verified by inspectors from Woodsure (a not-for profit firm, owned by Hetas and appointed by government to run the certification scheme).
From 1 May 2021 packaging for small amounts of wood (less than two cubic metres) must state the supplier's name, the certification number and show the Ready to Burn logo. Some suppliers are already meeting the new requirements - and indicating this using the logo above.
Also, make sure you never burn treated wood, such as from an old piece of furniture, as it could let off toxic chemicals.
4. Burn smokeless fuel instead of house coal
Burning smokeless coal is more environmentally friendly than using house coal, as it produces fewer emissions. Some 22% of stove owners who answered our survey use this regularly and only 4% use house coal.
Smokeless coal is an umbrella term for a few different types of coal that produce less smoke as they burn. It includes anthracite coal – this occurs naturally, but can also be manufactured.
Manmade smokeless coals can contain a combination of elements, including anthracite and other renewable materials, making many of them more eco-friendly than house coal.
Look for smokeless fuel with 2% or less sulphur, as high levels of sulphur can impact your health, and damage stoves and chimneys.
For smoke-controlled areas, the Clean Air Act 1993 stipulates that smokeless solid fuels mustn't contain more than 2% sulphur. From May 2021, manufacturers of solid fuel, including coal, will have to demonstrate that it meets the new standards for emissions and sulphur content - and display the Ready to Burn logo to show it does.
5. Learn to keep your stove burning well
Wood that doesn't have a good supply of air is likely to smoke more, therefore producing higher levels of potentially harmful emissions.
Whether you're burning wood or smokeless fuel, leave the door ajar and open air vents while you're getting the fire going. Once established, use the air vents to keep the fire burning.
Ensure the flue stays at the right temperature throughout use by making sure the fire is constant. Building burning materials into a teepee shape at the beginning will help.
This will help avoid carbon monoxide – an odourless and potentially deadly gas – coming down the chimney.
It's worth buying a stove thermometer to monitor the temperature. Most stoves should stay between 200°C and 250°C. This can vary for each stove, so check with your manufacturer.
6. Clean and maintain your stove regularly
Having your chimney swept regularly is vital for ensuring it doesn't get overloaded with sooty deposits. Any obstructions could become a fire hazard and will prevent smoke escaping from your home properly.
You should get it swept quarterly while it's in use if you burn wood or coal. If you burn smokeless coal, you should get it swept once a year. You should also have your stove serviced annually to make sure it's working efficiently and safely.
Worryingly, 4% of people we spoke to never get their stove swept. However, a high proportion (59%) get it swept annually and 31% every few years.
Make sure you also examine your stove for any cracks, distortions or other problems and get them checked by a stove installer or chimney sweep. Any faults could mean harmful pollutants are making their way into your home..
Types of pollution in your home
There are three main types of pollution in our homes: particulate matter (PM), gases and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).
1. Particulate matter
Combustion is created by wood and coal fires, but also by regular activities - such as burning candles, using electric toasters and gas cooking. Combustion produces tiny particulate matter. This can also come from dusting and vacuuming.
Particulate matter can inflame your airways, and increase the risk of lung and heart disease if inhaled at persistently high levels over time.
Gases – including carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) – are emitted by appliances that burn fuel, such as open fires, gas cookers and gas boilers.
- CO2 is produced by human respiration and burners operating normally. High levels of CO2 over time, which can come from poor ventilation, can result in drowsiness, impaired thinking, dizziness and headaches. Individuals with lung disease and impaired lung function could be particularly affected.
- NO2 is produced by combustion. In homes with gas stoves, kerosene heaters or unvented gas-space heaters, indoor levels often exceed outdoor levels, possibly increasing the effects of exposure to allergens, such as house dust mites, and irritating the eyes, nose, throat and respiratory tract.
- CO is produced when carbon-containing fuel burns without adequate oxygen - for example, by poorly maintained gas heaters and boilers, portable gas or paraffin heaters with no flue and badly installed stoves.
CO is an odourless, but potentially deadly, gas. Every home should have at least one working carbon monoxide detector, correctly positioned. But don't think every carbon monoxide detector is up to the job of protecting you and your family.
3. Volatile organic compounds
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are chemicals found in a wide variety of materials. They're produced when cooking and using heating appliances, such as wood burners and non-electric space heaters. VOCs evaporate into the air at room temperature, forming vapours that we breathe.
Different classes of VOCs have different risk levels. For example, benzene (from petrol and cigarette smoke and, potentially, from paints and solvents) is high risk. Terpenes, including limonene and pinene (familiar lemon and pine smells used in scented toiletries and bathroom cleaners), are considered lower risk.
VOCs can react with ozone from outdoor air, particularly in hot weather, to form the gas formaldehyde and other irritants. Formaldehyde is a lung irritant that can cause allergic reactions and, at very high levels, is carcinogenic. Formaldehyde can also be released from new flatpack furniture, lino and carpet, fabrics, bedding, glues and insulation.
Exposure to very high levels of VOCs can cause symptoms such as eye, nose and throat irritation, headaches and nausea and, in the long term, even damage the liver, kidneys and central nervous system.
Our investigation into air pollution in the home
In December 2016, we took snapshot measurements of air-quality and ventilation rates in three semi-detached houses:
- ‘draughty’ Victorian house
- 1950s house with many insulating improvements
- new-build end-of-terrace.
Our measurements were taken with the windows closed before, and almost immediately after, concentrated bursts of common household activities. This included vacuuming, cleaning, cooking, and using personal care and scented products.
We discovered surprisingly high levels of pollutants with potential cumulative long-term health effects in all our test houses.
While the activities we performed were relatively short-term – making a fry-up, cleaning the bath and vacuuming – it’s the prolonged exposure to the generated pollutants that could cause health problems.
It's important to stress that some people are more susceptible to the effects of indoor pollutants – for example, if you suffer from asthma, are sensitive to allergens indoors, or have heart or lung disease.
We're not suggesting you should worry about every candle you light, or open all the windows, even in winter. Our discoveries are more about potential cumulative effects over the longer term. But there are things you can do to limit the risks:
- choose products that will minimise indoor pollution;
- maximise ventilation by opening windows and trickle vents;
- use bathroom and kitchen extractor fans.
*January 2019 survey of 1,434 Which? members who have bought a stove in the past 10 years.