The electric car charging infrastructure is growing quickly in the UK, and it's going to need to continue at a prolific rate in order to stay ahead of the seismic shift in the run-up to the 2030 ban on new petrol and diesel cars.
The number of electric cars on UK roads is expected to rise from 210,000 at the start of 2021 to around 12 million by 2030, according to figures from electric car charging point mapping site Zap-map and predictions from the Climate Change Committee's Sixth carbon budget.
That’s almost a 60-fold increase in less than nine years.
Whether you drive an electric car today or not, a lot of us will soon be reliant on the ever-growing charging infrastructure. Here's what you need to know about the electric car public charging network.
There are more than 30 different charging networks across the UK. Ubitricity, BP Pulse and Pod Point are among the biggest.
Having such a large number of separate networks creates perhaps the biggest drawback to electric car charging:
To get a charge going, you'll typically need to download a network specific app and follow the instructions to initiate and pay for the charge.
Alternatively, you may need (or can choose) to go to the network's website to put in your details and start the charge.
Some networks also allow you to register an RFID card (Radio Frequency Identify Card) which will allow you to start a charge by tapping the card against a card reader (not a bank card reader) - but you'll still need to manage an account online in connection with your RFID card.
In most cases you'll need a different app, website or RFID card for each different network.
Millions of drivers will soon be dependent on the UK's charging infrastructure. We think that to make it work, a form of universal access needs to be established across all networks.
Before you charge your car, you'll want to understand a few basic terms. Such as the difference between kW and kWh, AC and DC and why that matters when charging electric cars.
kW (kilowatts) and kWh (kilowatt hours) are arguably the most common terms, and you'll come across them every time you charge.
So if you had a 21kWh capacity battery it should - in theory - take three hours to charge when connected to a 7kW charger.
In reality, this won't actually be the case as a battery always require more power to charge than it can actually hold, but this provides a general idea of the concepts involved.
Before you visit a public charger, you need to know two things about your electric car:
Electric car charge points offer different power outputs - in a nutshell, the higher the power output, the quicker your car charges (provided the power output is within your car's maximum charge rate).
You'll see terms like 'slow chargers' and 'rapid chargers' used a lot - here's what they relate to:
The most common public electric car chargers are slow to fast chargers - they account for around 80% of all UK chargers, according to Zap-Map.
Slow to fast chargers use one of two plugs to connect to your car:
All slow to fast chargers supply AC from the electricity grid to your car. The battery in your electric car, like any battery, cannot use AC to charge. So when you connect an AC (3-22kW) charger to your car, the current goes to the vehicle's onboard charger - this converts it from AC to DC.
Rapid and ultra-rapid chargers directly provide DC to your car - the special DC connection bypasses your car's onboard charger to supply current directly to the car's battery. It's a much faster way to charge your car, but can be very costly.
Unless you drive a Tesla, your electric car will have one of two entirely different rapid charging DC plugs, both of which require their own socket:
There used to be two AC sockets, too, but in 2014 the EU decreed that all new plug-in cars should come equipped with a Type 2 AC socket. However, no such announcement has been made for DC sockets.
Streamlining the types of DC sockets available on cars will help make living with an electric car that little bit simpler in the long run.
Before we answer this question, you need to know that electric cars actually have two charging rates:
While fast (AC) charging points go up to a maximum 22kW, most electric cars on the market are limited to a 7.2-11kW maximum AC charge rate.
Charge point power
Time to charge from 0-80%
Time to charge from 0-100%
50kW (DC - Rapid charging)
Ultra-rapid chargers, which typically have a charge rate of between 100kW and 350kW, will charge even faster, potentially taking less than an hour for a full charge from zero – provided your vehicle is compatible.
If you tried to charge the same battery from a three-pin plug at home, it would take around 30 hours to charge the battery by 80%. Which is why you'll want a wallbox if you can charge at home - see our guide on to find out more.
While most cars are limited to an 11kW AC charge rate or less, you can still connect it to a 22kW charger to your car - it’s not going to blow up. The car and onboard charger will simply manage the rate of charge and take what it can.
The real problem is that if you don’t know the maximum AC rate of charge your electric car can take, you might end up choosing a charger with a higher rate of power when it’s of no use to you.
That could take it away unfairly from another electric car driver that can use it and it could cost you more.
There are too many networks to list them all here. So we're highlighting the key UK networks you need to know about.
BP Pulse has arguably the widest chargepoint coverage across the UK. It’s gone one step beyond the government advice to add direct payment by bank card to all rapid chargers from Spring 2020, but is also updating existing chargers as well – which is excellent.
Unfortunately, BP Pulse (along with Osprey) is also one of the networks charging people more for using a bank card (tap and pay). If you use one of its rapid chargers and pay directly by bank card, you’ll be charged more per kWh than if you'd used the same chargepoint and initiated the charge via the company's website or app.
We see this as charging more for using a bank card. BP sees it as a discount for those who don’t. BP told us: ‘Those who choose to sign up for a free membership benefit from a discount on their charging costs based on the value derived by the business from their membership.’
An on-street specialist that's expanding quickly. Its chargers range from 7-22kW and all have RFID readers, opening up the possibility of more universal access.
This ambitious company is all about a smart approach - installing clusters of chargers across an area, which then communicate to balance load and stress on the UK grid. It also allows users to benefit from lower cost electricity at low demand times overnight - helping those without off-street take advantage of lower electricity rates.
One of the largest networks in the UK, GeniePoint has a mix of rapid and non-rapid charge points.
This network is relatively unusual as it allows RFID cards from other networks to also be used with its own chargers. As the card is just an identifier, it can use existing RFID cards, such as an employer's staff card or public transport card. All you need to do is set up an account and link it to your card at a GeniePoint charger.
A spokesperson told Which? that ‘in theory, other networks could make the same decision and allow customers to use any suitable RFID cards... a customer would then be able to use one card to manage charging events on all networks.’
Currently, those using GeniePoint chargers have to top up their account with a minimum of £10 before charging.
GeniePoint has announced it is removing this minimum credit as of 30 September 2021 and moving to a pay-as-you-go system - so from 30 September, you’ll only be charged for what you use.
Those who have existing credit on their account will automatically use it up on subsequent charging sessions until the credit is depleted, before going to pay as you go.
The network also previously charged connection fees, where people were charged a small nominal fee every time they connected a charger, but this was abolished in early 2021.
Gridserve and Electric Highway
Gridserve opened the first electric-car only forecourt in the UK, in December 2020. It can be found in Braintree, Essex, but it plans to open 100 electric car only forecourts across the UK between 2020 and 2025.
In March 2021 it announced it was forming a partnership with the energy company Ecotricity, which has its own car charging network called the 'Electric Highway'. In June 2021, Gridserve announced it had purchased the Electric Highway and will swap out all existing charger with newer technology.
It aims to put six to 12 high-power 350kW devices at all motorway service stations. When electric cars can receive a charge, in theory these ultra-rapid chargers could add 100 miles of charge in five minutes.
One of the largest rapid-charger networks in the UK and it stands out example of convenience and good practice. InstaVolt shun things like membership fees, RFID cards and connection fees in favour of bank card only payments at its chargers. It has won a string of awards.
InstaVolt does have an app you can use to get VAT payments, as card-only payments means there's no printer to dispense VAT receipts. If you don’t use the app, you have to email InstaVolt with the time, locations and cost of your charge and it will email you back with your receipt. You can also access the same service online.
You can use a bank card to pay for your charge at any Osprey charging point, like InstaVolt. Unlike InstaVolt, Osprey offers fast charging in addition to rapid charging.
The brand is also one of the few networks to allow you to pay using other companies' payment systems - this includes car manufacturer electric car charging schemes, such as the VW We Charge Plan and myHyundai, among others. These schemes allow their customers access to a number of networks via a single app or payment/RFID card, and can offer discounted charging rates with certain networks (but you typically have to pay for a monthly subscription to get the cheaper rates, so you need to work out if it's worth it).
Osprey was also a launch partner for other roaming options, including Zap Pay (see below) and the Octopus Electric Juice Network. The latter allows access to a number of networks without the need for separate apps and RFID cards. As a bonus for customers, the cost of charging your car will be added to your home's energy bills.
Direct payments by card will always be convenient and Osprey should be commended for being accessible by so many roaming schemes. But what takes the shine off this easy access is that you have to download and use the Osprey app for the best price (you currently save 5p per kWh). So, like BP Pulse, you are still paying more to use your bank card (or if you pay via any other roaming options that isn't the Osprey app).
One of the largest networks in the UK, Pod Point has done away with RFID cards. Users must have its app to hand or be able to access the company's website. Most of Pod Point's chargers are free to use (yes, really).
Source London is the only major network to charge per minute across all its chargers, and not per kWh.
When we crunched the numbers, we found the cost of charging could as much as over £2,700 for a medium-sized electric hatchback like the VW id.3 - that's several times what you'd typically pay to other networks.
Source London points out that these rates include on-street parking rates, whereas others do not. However, Source London also confirmed that even if your car reaches 100% charge, you will continue to be charged at the same rate until you disconnect the car (unless charging overnight, where you will be cut off after four hours).
A Source London spokesperson told us: ‘Our price per minute pricing structure is designed to encourage users to disconnect their vehicle as soon as they have finished charging.’
Tesla has two of its own networks: the Tesla supercharger network and its destination charger network. Tesla superchargers have power levels from 120kW to 250kW, with 350kW chargers to appear in the UK at a later date.
The Tesla networks came out on top in a 2021 satisfaction survey by Zap-Map, and Tesla's supercharger network received particularly high praise.
Tesla’s superchargers are currently not open to other brands of car, despite having a CCS connector in addition to its unique DC-delivering Type 2 connector. However, Tesla announced in July 2021 that its network would open to other cars 'later this year'.
Tesla's separate destination network is comprised of type 2 AC chargers with rated power outputs from 3kW to 22kW. Destination chargers can be unique to Tesla, or open to all with a Type 2 plug.
Tesla says that ‘wherever two chargers are installed, we encourage one to be universal and one to be Tesla only’. A Tesla spokesperson told us the destination chargers have ‘the same hardware, just a switch inside that makes it universal or Tesla only’.
Shell bought Ubitricity, the on-street charging specialist, in February 2021. Ubitricity cleverly converts lampposts and bollards into charging points but the drawback is no card payments, not even RFID cards. Access is 100% via an app or its website. The Ubitricity network is limited to 5.5kW charging.
In September 2021, Shell announced it was going to expand the number of Ubitricity chargers from 3,600 in September 2021 to 50,000 by 2025. The UK Committee for Climate Change has stated that the UK needs 150,000 public charge points operating across the UK by 2025, so this move would supply a third of the UK's projected needs.
Not just used to find chargers, Zap-Map has launched a trio of options via its app and website - Zap Pay, Zap Home and Zap Work.
Zap Pay grants users (registered or as a guest) to use multiple different networks without having to create separate accounts for either network. Launched with Osprey and ESB Energy, five more networks have since joined the platform: GeniePoint, char.gy, Motor Fuel Group (MFG), Revive and Mer. All seven networks should be live on the platform by October 2021.
Zap Home is slightly different and allows those with off street parking and a wallcharger to list their personal charge point publicly, set rates and allow other people to use them between certain times. Zap Work is the same concept, but to be used by companies to list their company charge points.