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Home & garden.

Kitchen planning: an expert guide to designing a new kitchen

How to plan your new fitted kitchen, from measuring and drawing plans to working out where to put plug points and appliances
Paula Flores
Kitchen planning 435143

Our guide will talk you through all the things you need to think about when planning your new kitchen – whether from scratch or if you're adapting a current design.

Before you start planning a new kitchen, the first thing to decide is whether you want to update your current kitchen or start afresh.

Look at what you already have, and think about what you like and don’t like about it. It can help to draw up a list of what you want to keep, move or remove completely. 

If your kitchen layout already works well, you'll save money by keeping things in the same place, particularly your sink and appliances.

Kick off your kitchen planning by measuring the space you have to play with and noting what can and can't be moved. 

See our kitchen ideas for more design inspiration.

Finished Kitchen

If you'd prefer to get professional help with the planning of your new kitchen, a number of the big kitchen companies offer planning services and tools – more on this below. When making initial enquiries, it's still best to arm yourself with measurements.

Our best kitchen brands review reveals the kitchen companies rated highest by their customers, plus details of each brand's planning services. It also includes information on our new lab-based kitchen unit assessments, which saw three brands scooping a Best Buy. One brand got an impressive score of 88% for one of its units.

How to plan your new kitchen

The planning process is the key time to consider big changes to your kitchen's design, so think carefully about how you use your current space and how you would like to use the new one. 

Ask yourself these questions before you start:

  • How do you move around your kitchen? Elements that you often use at the same time, such as the fridge and work surface, should be close together. 
  • Where do you prepare food? Put your worktop space where you like to prepare food – possibly next to the hob. 
  • How much storage do you need? Do you need more than you currently have? Open shelving or big, deep cupboards?
  • Who will you be entertaining in your kitchen? You may want space for a table or a breakfast bar where people can sit and talk to you while you cook. 
  • Which utensils and crockery do you use the most? Ensure they'll be easily accessible in your new kitchen design.
  • Do you have a lot of gadgets? If you want them on display you'll need lots of worktop space; if they'll be tucked away, you'll need deep cupboards.
  • Do you have room for the large appliances you want? For example, range cookers or American-style fridge freezers will take up a lot of space.

Remember to consider your kitchen's constraints, such as its size and the positions of doors, windows and plug sockets. If you're not planning any structural work, you'll need to be realistic about what your space can accommodate.

If you're short on space, see our small kitchen ideas for ways to make the most of every square inch.

How do I measure my kitchen?

Map out your current kitchen layout (or empty kitchen if you plan to start from scratch) on graph paper. Use metric measurements, as this is what kitchen manufacturers use. 

Take a look at the images below for an example of how to measure your kitchen. The first shows an overhead plan of the whole room.

Planning your kitchen measurements from above graphic

The image below shows how to measure your walls and plot the location of windows, cupboards and appliances.

Planning your kitchen measurements graphic

The image below shows a 'kitchen triangle', which helps you plot the distance you need to leave between key locations in your kitchen.

Planning your kitchen triangle graphic

Ceiling and floor

Take measurements from the ceiling to the floor and across each wall. It's worth taking the measurements of the same wall or floor at a few different points, as rooms can be slightly asymmetrical and not completely square at every point.

For the width across the walls, measure along the floor, half way up the wall and near the ceiling. For the ceiling, measure at three points across the wall from the floor to the ceiling. It's a good idea to note down the measurements for each wall individually and name them, for example 'wall one, wall two' etc. Make a note of any architectural features, such as cornices.

Windows and doors

Note the location and size of windows and doors. Add in the distance between them and the floor, as well as between each other. When measuring windows and doors, you should include the door or window frame (sometimes called the trim) in the measurement, so measure out from these.

Also make a note of which way they open and how much room they will need to open fully. Name all the windows and doors too, for example 'window one' and 'window two'.

Existing kitchen units

If there are any kitchen units you want to keep, add these to your plan with their measurements – width, height and depth – and distances between them and the walls and floor where it makes sense to add this.

For example, if a unit is on the floor in a corner, you would only measure the distance to the other wall, or if it's a unit fixed to the wall, you would want to include measurements to the floor and other walls.

Electric sockets and waste pipes

Highlight where the electric sockets are, the cable routes from them to the relevant appliance, and where the plumbing and waste pipes are. Moving these will add to the costs, so plan to keep them where they are if possible. 

If you can, measure the height, width and depth of these too, and ideally how far they are from other walls, the floor and ceiling. Make sure you note anything else that is a fixed feature, such as radiators.


If you have a boiler in the kitchen, highlight where and what type of boiler it is. If you're upgrading your boiler, see our boiler reviews and boiler buying guides


Mark which kitchen walls are external or internal.

Kitchen design tools

Most of the national kitchen companies have a kitchen planning service, where you will be able to discuss your requirements with a designer who will create a digital plan of your kitchen. Many also have an online design tool that you can access from home, before or after an appointment. 

We've listed which companies do what below. Click on the links to go to each review page, where you will find more information about their design services as well as what their customers think of the company.

Online kitchen planner

These companies have both a design service and an online planner you can access from home without having to speak to anyone beforehand or making an appointment.

Appointment-only design service

You can only use a design service with one of these companies if you book ahead. None have an online planner you can access without having spoken to someone.

It's worth noting that for independent kitchen companies, although most won't have an online planning tool, their designers are more likely to have specialist expertise than with the more general DIY kitchen stores.

Kitchen planning checklist

If you want to add detail to your measurement plan, or use an online planning tool, it's worth keeping these factors in mind:
  • Keep the work triangle distance (see the image above) between the sink, fridge and cooker at seven metres or less. This makes cooking easier, as you’ll have shorter distances to travel.
  • Allow for a 40cm clearance between an open kitchen door and the nearest opposite unit. Aim for at least 120cm clearance between parallel runs of kitchen units, so that two people can move around at once.
  • Most unit doors open up to a maximum of 60cm. Dishwasher doors usually open by 60cm and oven doors by 50cm. A typical worktop height is 90cm, although this will not be ideal for everybody. Ensure that elbow height is a few centimetres above kitchen worktops.
  • Standard 60cm-deep units will be a tight squeeze if your kitchen is less than 180cm wide from one wall to the other. Solve this by looking for slimmer 50cm-deep units.
  • Leave at least 40cm clearance between the worktop and wall-mounted cupboards. 
  • Make sure you include space for end panels (where necessary) when calculating the dimensions of your units.
  • Check the height of wall units to ensure you'll be able to fit the cornice (the section of wood fitted along the top of wall units to give them a finished appearance).
  • Work out the number of door handles and the amount of cornice and plinth (the section that runs along the bottom of base units) that you'll need. You may want to order extra to save time and hassle if any are damaged during delivery or installation.

Ready to get started? Here's how to get a kitchen installed.

Kitchen owners' regrets

Some 44% of kitchen owners we spoke to said that they regretted nothing about their kitchen. However, 54% did have regrets.*

Log in or join Which? to see the biggest regrets so you can avoid them.

Subject to space constraints, all of the gripes listed can be dealt with if you plan your kitchen design correctly.

You can use our Which? Trusted Trader search tool below to find reliable traders in your area.

Freestanding kitchens vs fitted kitchens

A fitted kitchen is exactly what it sounds like: a kitchen that is fixed into place on the walls and/or floor. A freestanding kitchen – usually made up of lots of different pieces of furniture – isn't fitted and can, theoretically, be moved. There are advantages and disadvantages to both types of kitchen. 

Freestanding kitchen with shabby chic kitchen units and kitchen table

Some pros and cons of a freestanding kitchen are:

Pros of freestanding kitchens

  • Mix and match styles, items, materials, colours, old and new – make your kitchen truly unique.
  • Open more kitchen design options – you can reuse an old sideboard, team it with a movable butcher’s block, buy an ex-display kitchen worktop and use it as a standalone kitchen larder unit.
  • A perfect option if you haven’t seen any kitchen styles you like.
  • Likely to be cheaper as you may be able to buy a lot second-hand and you probably won't need a kitchen fitter.

Cons of freestanding kitchens

  • Overall installation is likely to be cheaper, but you will need to consult a professional if you need any water or gas work done.
  • It may take extra work. The furniture you use will need to work in a room that will get a lot of wear and tear and splashes from water and cooking.
  • Lots of items are available to buy new, which will have been treated in the right way. But if you upcycle, you'll need to make sure it's going to be suitable. 
  • Although you can move the kitchen around or change it, the furniture is likely to be heavy and may have created marks if left in place for a long time. 
  • You won't get the sleek, seamless look a fitted kitchen can offer.

You can also mix both styles to get the best of both worlds. For example, you could marry a movable kitchen island on wheels and freestanding dresser with a fitted kitchen. You can draw on as many elements as you like from each style to create the perfect balance. 

Visit our page on kitchen ideas for more, including information on kitchen paint and inspiration. Also visit our kitchen cabinets page for tips on replacing or painting kitchen doors.

Bespoke kitchens

Many of the national kitchen companies and DIY stores only sell off-the-shelf kitchens, while kitchen specialists, including Howdens Joinery and John Lewis, will create a kitchen from scratch to suit your exact requirements. 

The obvious benefit of this is that your kitchen will completely suit your lifestyle and needs, and will make use of every inch space and be unique. The downside it the cost: as you can imagine, this level of work comes at a higher price. 

If you're interested in this sort of kitchen, we'd recommend speaking to a few companies, including the bigger chains, local kitchen companies and carpenters. That way you can get an idea of what would work best for you, and the cost, which is likely to vary between the three.

It's worth keeping in mind that even a specialist kitchen company, particularly the larger chains, is likely to base a kitchen design on its range, so it might not be completely individual.

In addition, many of the standard kitchen companies offer a variety of options to help you to create a design that is tailored to your needs.

You can find a local kitchen company or kitchen fitter near you by using our Which? Trusted Traders service. All professionals displaying our logo have been through our rigorous checks. You can also see how customers rated independents vs the bigger brands on our best and worst kitchen companies page.

Kitchen storage

Lack of storage was a key regret for many of the people we asked, so this should be a key consideration when designing your kitchen. 

Assess your needs:

  • What do you need to store and how much storage space will you therefore need? 
  • What do you use regularly and what do you use less often? 
  • Of the things you use regularly, where would make most sense for them to be stored?

For example, if you like to try new recipes and experiment with spices, having cookbooks and a spice rack to hand near the hob would be useful. Or if you’re a seasoned baker, storage for baking utensils and ingredients might be best placed by the area where you’ll do most preparation.

Once you’ve thought about what you want to store and where it makes most sense to place things, have a think about the different types of storage available: kitchen islands, open shelves, pull-out units, corner storage racks, hooks, freestanding units such as dressers, floor-to-ceiling cupboards, plate racks and wine racks (built-in or freestanding).

We run through what to consider when choosing your kitchen units, doors and worktops.

Kitchen storage ideas

Kitchen storage ideas gallery

A large collection of images displayed on this page are available at https://www.which.co.uk/reviews/fitted-kitchens/article/planning-a-kitchen/kitchen-planning-a9rwq2W0JCbB

Kitchen cupboard storage

These days, kitchen cabinets don't just house shelves: there are a whole host of other storage solutions that make life easier and make use of otherwise wasted space. This includes:

  • racks and hooks that sit on the inside of the door
  • plate stackers that use the height of the unit
  • pull-out wire baskets so you can easily get to everything
  • rotating holders that enable you to look at items at the back
  • under-cupboard racks that sit on the underside of shelves
  • corner units that pull out so you can get to items at the back
  • pull-down shelves and baskets so you can access items in high-up cupboards.

Kitchen larder unit

A kitchen larder is an incredibly useful way to organise and store all your food supplies, as well as keep them out of sight. 

But not many of us are lucky enough to have the space for a traditional, walk-in larder, where you have a dedicated space (or even an entire room) for your food. There are, however, lots of other ways to achieve a similar thing.

Lots of the big-name kitchen companies offer pull-out larder units in thin floor-to-ceiling units that make the most of the space. These usually contain racks as shelves that can be fixed or moved around and added to.

You can also get open larder shelves (there is an example in the gallery above) where open shelves also run the full height of your kitchen, or use a shelving unit by buying boxes to sort your food into sections.

A dedicated larder unit or dresser is also an option. These freestanding pieces of furniture usually come with racks and shelves inside and on the doors.

If you have a particularly small kitchen and are tight on space, take a look at our small kitchen ideas page for more inspiration.

Kitchen unit and appliance dimensions

Using the dimensions of your kitchen you’ve mapped out, take a look at the typical kitchen unit dimensions in the table below to see how much you can fit into your kitchen and where things will need to go.

A lot of the big-name kitchen brands sell kitchens pre-assembled, to the standard measurements below. If you have the budget, you could consider getting storage made to your home's exact specifications.

Kitchen unit measurements

Kitchen unit dimensions
SizesBase unitWall unitWorktopsSinks
Height72cm plus plinth72-90cm2-4cm thickness15-18cm
Width30-1,000cm30-1,000cm2.5m, 3m or 4m and cut to fit76-95
DepthUp to 60cm30cmDepth of cabinet plus 3cm overhand44-50cm

Appliance dimensions

 CookerFridge/FreezerDishwasher (full/slimline)Washing machine/tumble dryerBuilt-in oven
Height (cm)90140-18085-88/808545-90
Width (cm)5050-6060/4556-6060
Depth (cm)6056-6554-6052-6255

Even if you don’t opt for bespoke design, many kitchen companies have design services to help you come up with the best design for you and your lifestyle, including which types of storage could work best. 

You can click on the kitchen brand names in our kitchen brands guide to see what services each firm provides.

If you have a particularly small kitchen, it's worth visiting our small kitchens page for more ideas on how to make the space work best for you. 

Buying and storing kitchen appliances

White kitchen detail with stove

You can see more information about the typical types, measurements and costs of kitchen appliances, such as cookers, fridge freezers and dishwashers by visiting our kitchen appliances page. 

Keep these measurements in mind as you plot out how much you can fit into your kitchen, as well as how many power sockets you'll need. 

Think about the electrical goods in your kitchen currently and whether you want any more. Consider how often you use, or would use, these items and how they should sit in your kitchen. 

You might want to keep some of these on the work surface. In this case, think about whether you will have enough plug points or workspace free – and if you could do with any additional shelves or built-in storage for appliances such as microwaves, toasters and food processors.

Most people have a kettle, toaster and microwave in regular use, so these should be easily and quickly accessible. Are they currently in the best place in terms of how you use the kitchen? 

Other kitchen gadgets to consider are breadmakers, coffee machines, food processors, stand mixers, hand blenders and mixers, grills, jug blenders, juicers, slow cookers and steamers.

Make sure you kit out your new kitchen with the best and right gadgets for you by taking a look at our kitchen appliance reviews section to find Best Buys. In this section, you will find everything from cookers and fridge freezers, to toasters and blenders.

Discover the top-rated kitchen brands in our fitted kitchen guide and see which won our coveted Best Buy status for its kitchen units.

Kitchen extensions

If you’re struggling for space, a kitchen extension may be the solution – although it is a considerable investment of time and money. A kitchen extension will transform your space, add light and even add value to your home, but they can get expensive. Here are some ideas to get you started.

Blue kitchen with skylight and wooden floor

Rear extension

  • A rear extension will increase the back of your property, extending into the garden.
  • A very popular and often simple type of extension, a rear extension can add significantly more indoor space to your property.
  • However, it will sacrifice some of your outdoor area. 

Side return extension 

  • You could extend your property outwards into an alleyway at the side of your property, if you have one
  • Particularly popular type of extension for Victorian-era houses.
  • Can bring in more light and creates a bigger space for your kitchen. 

Wrap-around extension

  • A wrap-around extension combines a side return and rear extension, potentially creating a huge new area for your kitchen
  • This type of extension is well-suited to an open-plan living space, so your kitchen area can also be used for entertaining. 

Conservatory extension

  • An alternative option is to have a conservatory extension and use it to expand your kitchen and dining area.
  • A conservatory can be easily designed to fit the space available.
  • This will usually cost less than the other types of extension.

Check out our guide on extension costs.

*May and June 2019 survey of 2,238 Which? members who have bought a kitchen in the last 10 years. **The quotes are from our November 2017 survey of 3,443 Which? members and kitchen owners.