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Age-related memory loss

Memory loss may be due to natural ageing, a side effect of medication or an indication of something more serious, such as a dementia-related illness.
4 min read
In this article
Normal age-related memory problems Common causes of memory loss Less common causes of memory loss
Gadgets that help with memory loss Finding the cause of the memory problems

Normal age-related memory problems

Our brains store huge amounts of information throughout our lifetimes. As people grow older, it’s normal for their ability to ‘manage’ that information to decline. Forgetting small things and then remembering them later, or being slower to learn new things, might be annoying but could simply be a normal part of ageing. There are several common memory problems associated with ageing.

  • Occasionally forgetting appointments, or forgetting names and then remembering them later.
  • Making the odd mistake when managing household bills, or forgetting to pay a bill on time.
  • Being slow or finding it difficult to grapple with new technology, such as mobile phones or computers.
  • Sometimes struggling to find the right words when speaking.
  • Misplacing things from time to time, but often finding them eventually.
  • Finding it difficult to manage work, family and social obligations.
  • Developing strict routines and finding it difficult when they are disrupted.

If your loved one has mild signs of forgetfulness, but is managing to do day-to-day tasks such as shopping and cooking, and is able to plan and organise ahead, it’s very unlikely that they will be diagnosed with dementia. But if things get worse, or you or the person you’re caring for are worried, it’s best that they get checked by a GP.

Like a lot of older folk, my parents seemed to be on this tablet and that tablet, and my mother became increasingly confused.

Common causes of memory loss

Memory loss can result from a variety of causes. Depending on the cause, the memory loss may be temporary or permanent; it may happen suddenly or get progressively worse over time. It can affect short-term memory (things that happened recently), long-term memory (things that happened a long time ago), or both. Memory loss might be caused by a range of things. 

  • Stress, depression and anxiety: these conditions can commonly cause memory problems. Paying attention to information helps us to take it in at the time and to recall it later. But stress, depression, anxiety, pain or any type of distress can affect both of these processes.
  • Fatigue: sleep is important for people mentally as well as physically. Without sleep the brain is slower and more sluggish, and memory may be temporarily impaired.
  • Stroke: a stroke, or series of strokes, may affect brain function and can result in memory loss. A stroke can cause damage to different areas of the brain, affecting different brain functions. The damage may be temporary or permanent. Further strokes or mini-strokes can cause increasing memory loss. This is known as vascular dementia.
  • Head injury: memory loss can be caused as a result of a head injury, for example during a fall or a car accident, which has damaged the brain. A head injury might result in sudden memory loss, so people may not be able to remember things immediately before or after the incident took place. Brain trauma may cause temporary memory loss and sometimes may require surgery.
  • Dementia: memory loss and decline of mental ability are symptoms of conditions such as Alzheimer’s or vascular dementia. Our articles on the different types of dementia and diagnosing dementia help you understand more about this condition.

Less common causes of memory loss

  • Brain tumour: a tumour in certain parts of the brain can affect memory function. This may require surgery.
  • Infections: confusion and memory problems, which develop or get worse suddenly, may be caused by an infection, such as a urinary tract infection (UTI). These can be treated with medication.
  • Drugs or alcohol: long-term abuse of illegal drugs or excessive alcohol consumption can affect memory.
  • Medications: confusion or memory loss can be side effects of taking certain medicines, such as sedatives. A GP can discuss with you whether stopping or switching medication would be a good idea.
  • Hormonal changes: for example, some women experience memory problems around the time of the menopause. If these are troublesome, discuss your symptoms with your GP.
  • Underactive thyroid: when the thyroid gland (in the neck) doesn’t produce enough hormones. This can usually be treated with medication.
  • Vitamin deficiency: for example, a lack of thiamine (vitamin B1) because of excessive alcohol consumption, or vitamin B12 deficiency due to autoimmune factors. This can be treated with supplements.
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Gadgets that help with memory loss

Memory aids are designed to help with remembering important and safety-critical everyday tasks. Read our guide to memory gadgets that help people with memory loss to stay safer and more independent.

Finding the cause of the memory problems


If you or the person you’re caring for have any concerns about their memory, it’s best to be checked out by a GP. Having a timely diagnosis means you or your loved one can receive the help and support that is needed. This is explored further in our article on diagnosing dementia.

Further reading

What is dementia?

We explain how to spot the signs of dementia and the difference between this condition and mild cognitive impairment.

Living well with dementia

Dementia is life changing, but it shouldn’t stop you from living an independent life for as long as possible.

Last updated: 27 Feb 2020