Disposable masks have become a common sight during the pandemic.
Some people find them more lightweight and convenient than reusable cloth masks and they are usually required for medical appointments.
They have also been recommended for people who are particularly vulnerable to Covid, as they must conform to specific filtration standards.
Disposable masks are usually made of several layers of a type of polypropylene and are either flat, pleated, or moulded to the face. They tend to have a built-in nose wire and simple elastic straps that go around the ears or head.
The World Health Organization (WHO) says this type of mask should be worn if you're sick with suspected Covid to protect those around you (although, if this is the case you should also be self-isolating), or considered by vulnerable people and people over the age of 60 in areas where community transmission is high.
It may be that in certain circumstances, you decide to opt for a disposable. Our guide below explains the pros and cons and different types to help you decide.
It's worth bearing in mind that, as a limited-use plastic product, disposable masks pose aren't exactly a eco-friendly product (though there are , and there's now evidence to suggest that you can reuse some disposables - see more below) and the costs of buying them regularly can add up over time.
For now, UK government advice still encourages the use of reusable fabric face coverings for general use. Our tests show that these can provide highly effective filtration too, so check our for the best options.
These disposable masks can filter large droplets produced by someone coughing or talking loudly near you, and have a moisture repellent outer layer, but they are less able to filter the tiny aerosol particles that also potentially carry the virus, as they don't fit tightly to the face.
However, like reusable face coverings, they do help to capture droplets exhaled by you when coughing, sneezing or talking, helping to limit the spread of viral particles.
Surgical or medical face masks are single-use disposable products, usually sold in boxes of 50 or more, but they can also be found in smaller packs these days in high street stores and pharmacies.
They tend to be blue, rectangular and pleated, with elastic ear straps and a nose wire.
They come in three different levels of filtration:
Respirator masks, called 'filtering face piece' or FFP masks, are closer-fitting masks designed to protect the wearer against the inhalation of both larger droplets and fine aerosol particles. They are roughly equivalent to the N95 masks in the US.
These need to be properly fit to the face to be effective, and are more expensive than blue surgical masks. Plus, they are technically single-use, so aren't very eco friendly - but you can probably reuse them a few times (see more below).
It's worth considering one if you're in an area with high transmission and are at greater risk of catching coronavirus.
Some FFP masks have straps that go around the back of your head, which is useful for a snug fit, and also for people who can't loop a face mask over their ears as easily - for example if you wear a turban or hijab or hearing aids.
Hardware stores sell these masks, meant for DIY and construction jobs to protect you from dust and other potentially harmful particles.
The problem with these from a public health perspective is that the valve (which makes it more comfortable to breathe) filters what you breathe in, but not what you breathe out – defeating the purpose of protecting others.
This means they aren't a suitable face covering for limiting the spread of the virus.
These are masks that are made from similar materials to disposable masks, but can be worn and washed a set number of times before you need to replace them. We've tested a couple of these and found that while some - like the Airpop Pocket - can filter as well as or better than disposable masks, others aren't quite up to the job.
Single-use disposable surgical-style masks (the pleated blue ones) work to the same basic principles as a homemade version. They provide basic protection against large droplets and splashes which are considered to be a key route of transmission, but not smaller particles.
Their main purpose is to protect others from your exhalations if you're asymptomatic, but they do also provide rudimentary protection.
Higher-grade respirators, like FFP2 masks, are designed to also filter finer aerosols coming in - so they offer a higher level of protection.
All disposable surgical masks must conform to certain minimum filtration standards, which reusable versions do not (although a voluntary minimum performance agreement is in place), so there's a bit more certainty about what you're getting when buying a disposable version.
Environmental groups have raised concerns about the impact that single-use face masks, which are made of plastic, is having on the environment.
They aren't currently recyclable via normal routes. There are some companies claiming to make recyclable face masks, but we found this is . You should never put disposable masks in the household recycling bin.
Still, there's cause for concern. According to University College London’s Plastic Waste Innovation Hub, if just half of the UK’s population used one disposable mask per day for a year, that adds up to around 12 billion masks a year, creating more than 30,000 tonnes of contaminated plastic waste.
Not disposing of them correctly also creates a potential hazardous waste problem and can harm wildlife, so if you do wear them, make sure you put them securely into a bin once worn, or safely recycled via specialist schemes.
Though FFP masks are technically designated as single-use, or ‘non-reusable’ products (this is what the NR on the packet denotes), evidence is mounting to support the view that FFP masks can be reworn, as they may remain effective for longer periods of time.
This would greatly reduce the waste created by these products and help make them more affordable.
FFP2/N95 type masks were originally designed for healthcare and industrial workers who are exposed to high levels of hazardous particles over the course of a shift – but that this doesn’t mirror everyday use by the public during Covid.
While it’s still important to bear hygiene in mind with your mask, there is scope for reuse. Mask manufacturer 3M recently issued saying that ‘respirators can be worn until they are dirty, damaged or difficult to breathe through.’
If you want to reuse, you should have a few masks on rotation, rather than reusing the same mask over and over. You can then air masks out between uses, which should mean that any viral particles present on the mask have time to die off.
If you dispose of them after each use, surgical masks aren’t a very practical or economical solution for sustained daily wear. At around 45p per mask for a basic surgical mask if you buy in bulk, the cost of using just one per day over the course of a year would be £164.
For FFP masks, this is even higher as they cost from about £2 - £4 per mask.
We know that some cheap, disposable face masks can be prone to breaking before or during a single use – ear straps breaking off are a common complaint. Exercise caution particularly when buying these on online, as we've .
Blue surgical masks are generally widely available, with most pharmacies, supermarkets, newsagents and corner shops stocking them, along with reusable masks.
But with masks no longer required by law, stock has seemed to decline at some places.
FFP masks are readily available online - but make sure that you check the product conforms to EN149:2001 and has a CE mark.
It depends on the pack size, as this ranges significantly from packs of four to 200, at pharmacies and in the thousands on online marketplaces.
For blue surgical masks, price per mask works out at about 35p in the largest bulk packs (some retailers are selling 300-piece bundles). You'll pay more for a smaller pack - around 80p per mask.
At the supermarkets, packs of between four and 10 will cost you about £2 to £3.
A pack of 10 FFP masks at Lloyd's Pharmacy is £30, and a pack of five is £9.99 at Boots.
Sometimes sold side by side with surgical masks, these are an unnecessary extra for most people.
While disposable surgical gloves play an important part in clinical or sometimes hospitality settings, they're not generally considered by experts to be needed for the general public.
Gloves are just as likely to become contaminated when out and about, so instead of throwing away a pair of gloves each time you go out, washing your hands or using sanitiser are better options.
Wearing gloves may also give the false impression of hand hygiene, while forgetting to change your gloves would be just as bad as forgetting to wash your hands.
The exception might be if you have sore or broken skin on your hands, in which case they can be a helpful barrier where hand sanitiser might aggravate the condition.